The spread of discrimination in Ukraine
According to the research implemented by RATING Pro, Information and Analytical Centre, Ukrainians believe that generally discrimination is not widespread in Ukraine.
- Under respondents’ opinion, the discriminations are against more common in Ukraine in case of older people (38%) and disabled persons (33%). However, it is less common for sexual orientation (27%), gender (21%), younger age (21%), ethnic origin (18%) and religious beliefs (14%).
- In comparison to the EU (Eurobarometer survey data), Ukrainians are quite often similar in their assessments of such countries as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, the Baltic countries. Normally, Ukrainians acknowledge discrimination less often than respondents in the majority of European countries, especially it relates to assessments of discrimination presence by gender, ethnic origin, religious beliefs or sexual orientation.
- The residents of West and Centre of the country noted the existence of different forms of discrimination in Ukraine more rarely, more often – residents of South and East. This is especially true about discrimination by age, disability, ethnic origin. While at the West 28% of respondents believe that discrimination against older age is widespread in Ukraine, at the South and East more than 50% of respondents believe so; by younger age – 8% versus 33%; disability – 28% versus 50%; gender – 8% against 33%.
The research found that a sense of comfort when the representative of a certain group is a direct manager is always less than when he is mayor and even less than President. Therefore, the higher the rank of the position, the less tolerance for different population groups, or the higher the publicity of the position, the more conservative are views.
- Only 14% of respondents would have sense of comfort if their direct manager was sexual minorities’ representative. Just over a quarter would have sense of comfort in case their direct manager was a person of another ethnic origin (than the majority of the population) or different race. Only 40% would have sense of comfort if their direct manager was a person with disability.
- However, respondents show relatively more loyalty to women, older or younger people at managerial positions.
- Interestingly, in Ukraine the comfort index when the president is an older man is one of the highest in Europe. Loyalty to young president is at the average level. However, Ukraine cedes the developed countries of Europe in terms of perception of a woman as president, person with disabilities, different ethnic origin than the majority of the population, representative of sexual minorities, and sometimes the difference is very noticeable.
- It is important that the younger age of the respondents and the higher the education level, then the greater tolerance for sexual minorities’ representatives. In addition, people with higher education perceived better the representatives of another race or ethnic group at the positions of manager, mayor or president.
The attitude of Ukrainians to specific ethnic groups is quite different, especially when it comes to assessments of the prospects of their possible entry to the respondent family, that is, when it comes to more personal level.
- Two-thirds of respondents would have negative attitude knowing that their child meets with Black man, almost 60% – with Arab or Asian origin. Only 6% would have positive attitude.
- Almost half would have negative attitude and only 10% – positive, knowing that their child meets with a person of Caucasian nationality.
- However, respondents have mostly neutral attitude to know that their child meets Jew (56%) or Russian (53%). Therefore, the level of positive attitude in this situation to Russians is higher (30%) than regarding Jews (18%).
- The residents of West has the worst attitude regarding prospects that their child will meet with a person of another ethnic group or race. The residents of South and East of the country are more loyal. The fundamental differences were seen in relation to Russians: at West 43% of respondents would negatively assess the fact that their child meets with Russian, in the Centre – only 14%, in South – 8%, in East only – 2%. However, in the majority of these regions the neutral assessments are dominated.
The research showed that the attitude of Ukrainians to certain social groups is more negative than to ethnic groups or races.
- 84% of respondents would have negative attitude knowing that their child meets with a man who overcame alcohol (drug) addiction. 88% – with a man released from penitentiary, 95% – AIDS, HIV-positive.
- Almost 80% of respondents would be ashamed to discover that their child has non-traditional sexual orientation.
The research found certain contradictions when respondents on the one hand talk about lack of discrimination in Ukraine, on the other – they by themselves show some level of rejection of different population groups. We can assume that respondents understand the term “discrimination” differently
- Half of respondents believe that discrimination by sexual orientation is almost absent in Ukraine. But 80% of respondents who think so would be ashamed to discover that their child has non-traditional sexual orientation, 60% would feel uncomfortable if their direct manager or mayor would be representative of sexual minorities.
- Almost 70% of respondents believe ethnic discrimination as rare in Ukraine. At the same time, over 60% of them would have negative attitude knowing that their child meets Black, more than 50% – Arab or Asian.
- Among those who believe that discrimination by ethnic origin is not widespread in Ukraine, nearly half would not feel comfortable if their teacher is a person of another ethnic group.