Gender roles and stereotypes in Ukraine
- In the families of almost half of respondents, the functions of the family head are performed by men. One-third considers that this role is shared by man and woman on an equal basis. Nevertheless, not always there is a consensus between males and females regarding question “who is the head?”. Thus, 58% of men consider themselves to be the head of the family while only 39% of women leave this role for man. At the same time, almost one-third of females considers themselves as the head, while among males there are only 10% of those who agree with this.
- Along with that, almost 80% of men believe that this is how it should be: «man must be the head of the family»; still, at the same time, a half agrees that «woman might be the head of the family as well as man». Among women vice versa: 60% consider that man must be the head of the family, but simultaneously, almost 80% agree that «woman might be the head of the family as well as man». In terms of regions, both hypotheses are more supported at the West and South, somewhat less – at the East, the least – at the Center.
- Typically, a thesis about the head role of man is more supported by people with low incomes and lower educational level. It is interesting that divorced people, as well as unemployed, tend to perceive woman as the head of the family more positively.
- In almost 60% of families, the upbringing of children is performed by woman. Noteworthy, this idea is supported by half of the men and almost 70% of women. At the same time, worth noting that more than one-third of respondents answering this question choose the option «equally». Only in 3% of cases, the functions of the children upbringing are performed mainly by men, moreover, this opinion is supported mainly by men themselves.
- Similarly, in half of cases, the housekeeping is performed by woman as well. Meanwhile, among interviewed females the percentage of those who approve the thesis is higher than among males – 58% against 43%. Remarkably, in contrast to children upbringing (where male's participation is minimal), housekeeping is performed by the relatively greater number of men (12%), but again, in the opinion of men mainly. Typically, at the West, the number of males who are engaged in housekeeping is twice greater as compared to other regions of the country.
- Generally, the fact that woman does all housework is perceived more positively as compared to the case when «housekeeping is performed by man while woman earns money» (65 and 44% correspondingly). At the same time, women are more positive toward men doing housework, while men are more likely to approve that housewife role for woman – the same way of self-actualization as employment. People with children and older people are more likely to support women playing housewife role.
- Important: the higher educational level of respondents, the more they approve the thesis that «there is nothing wrong if man performs housekeeping while woman earns money», and disapprove the thesis that «for woman to be housewife – the same way of self-actualization as employment». Almost half of women consider there is nothing wrong if man does housework, the number of such among men is smaller (40%).
- Interesting that the further to the West, the more moderate people are in their assessments of the fact, that it is woman who earns money while man does housework – at the West, women are more likely to take responsibility for the financial well-being of the family.
- Along with this, the vast majority of respondents (82%) agree with the thesis that «man must totally maintain his family». The leader of support for this statement is the South, the least of support – at the Center. And once again, more progressive toward this question are people with higher educational level.
- In the majority (60%) of Ukrainian families, it is considered that man earns more, herewith, the idea is supported by almost 70% of men and somewhat more than half of women. At the same time, more than 20% of women consider themselves as those who earn more, while only 10% of men agree with the fact that woman earns more in comparison to them.
- The vast majority of respondents (almost 80%) agree that in their family the cooking is performed mainly by woman, 18% of respondents consider that in their family this responsibility is equally shared while in only 3% of families cooking is man's job.
- Moreover, more than half of females and two-thirds of males agree with the statement that «cooking in the family must be performed by woman». Typically, the thesis is the most approved among the older generation and village citizens. Also, regional aspect of the matter is very illustrative: traditionally, women at the West of Ukraine are believed to be pretty good in cooking, hence, the number of respondents who consider that it is woman who must perform cooking is higher exactly at the West – 70% in comparison to 51% at the East.
- Along with that, one-third of women and somewhat more than 40% of men agree that «men perform better in cooking than women». Quite expected that idea is more supported among those with higher education and higher incomes. According to marital status criterion, the most supported this thesis is among respondents who live in civil marriage, somewhat less supported – among married and single.
- In the opinion of one-third of respondents, men generally have more free time as compared to women; still, almost half mentions that in terms of this aspect both genders are equal.
- More than half of men consider that «woman has no right to restrict man in the way he spends free time» (among women the number of thesis supporters is almost twice smaller). Along with this, while among single people the thesis is supported in more than 50% of cases, among divorced – only one-third. Naturally, young people and those without children are more likely to endow males with freedoms.
- Only 28% of males and somewhat more than one-third of females consider that «woman has right to neglect household duties at any time and do her own stuff». Naturally, single and divorced people are more progressive in their vision, while married couples tend to be more traditional. Logically, people with children and older people are more conservative in their assessments of females' responsibilities.
- Interesting that more than 40% of males and quarter of females agree with the thesis that «woman should not burden man with housework». Traditionally, this hypothesis is more supported among older people and also among poor and low-income citizens. Nevertheless, the reason for optimism still exists: it is quite encouraging that the higher educational level the more skeptical people are toward this statement.
The survey is conducted by Sociological Group «Rating» on order of Analytical Center RATING Pro. During 1-6 October 2015, 1800 respondents were interviewed. The margin of error does not exceed 2,4%.